classification and analysis of humans and their society, descriptively, culturally, historically, and physically. There are also opportunities for applying anthropological knowledge to industry: anthropological standards have been set for articles of clothing, footwear, headgear, gloves, bus seats, railway car seats, school desks, and so forth. Its unique contribution to studying the bonds of human social relations has been the distinctive concept of cultureculture,in anthropology, the integrated system of socially acquired values, beliefs, and rules of conduct which delimit the range of accepted behaviors in any given society. Anthropological data have been proven to be of direct benefit in forensic medicine, particularly in the compilation of composite portraits based on oral descriptions and tables facilitating determination of sex, age, and racial affinities from bone remnants with greater or lesser accuracy. Once the standard approach to racial classification and comparing humans to other primates, the technique is now used for deciding..... In addition, methodological differences between the two subjects are critical; anthropologists having usually involved themselves in detailed ETHNOGRAPHY, accounts produced after long periods of PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION. Soviet anthropology has carried out extensive research on the very urgent problem of acceleration—that is, the almost universally observable acceleration of the growth and physiological development of children (V. ethnology, scientific study of the origin and functioning of human cultures. This methodological difference grew out of two considerations: the science of the origin and evolution of human beings, of the formation of human races, and of the normal variations in the physical structures of human beings. Racial and sexual peculiarities in dentition have been studied by A. Comparative anatomical research, which is a division of merology, is devoted to comparing each distinct organ and system of organs of the human body with its counterparts in other vertebrates, principally mammals and especially primates. The ultimate aim of these investigations is to clarify the genetic links between humans and other beings and the place of humans in the animal world.
Emerging as an independent science in the mid-19th cent., anthropology was associated from the beginning with various other emergent sciences, notably biology, geology, linguistics, psychology, and archaeology. Bunzel, ed., The Golden Age of American Anthropology (1960); M. In addition to Moscow University, where there is the specialized Institute of Anthropological Studies and where cadres of specialists in anthropology are being trained in the anthropology department of the biological faculty, research on anthropology is carried on in the USSR in various laboratories, at institutes of the Academy of Sciences, in universities and other institutions located in Leningrad, Kiev, Tbilisi, Tartu, Riga, Tomsk, and other cities.
Radiocarbon decays slowly in a living organism, and the amount lost is continually replenished as long as the organism takes in air or food.
Once the organism dies, however, it ceases to absorb carbon-14, so that the amount of the radiocarbon in its tissues steadily decreases.
Anthropology is divided primarily into physical anthropology and cultural anthropology. Rosenau, Post-modernism and the Social Sciences: Insights, Inroads, and Intrusions (1992).
Physical anthropology focuses basically on the problems of human evolution, including human paleontology and the study of racerace,one of the group of populations regarded as constituting humanity. Physical anthropology concerns itself with the genesis and variation of hominoid species and draws on evolutionary biology DEMOGRAPHY and archaeology Social and cultural anthropology investigates the structures and cultures that are produced by HOMO SAPIENS. Applications of mathematical techniques to the solution of anthropological problems have also been studied—that is, problems such as establishing regularities in the variability of physical characteristics and criteria and combinations of those characteristics, factor analysis of intragroup variations, studies of the measure of correspondence between the distribution of measurable criteria on the normal curve, analysis of intergroup variability, and in particular the reality of differences between groups of people—territorial groups, professional groups, and so forth (M.
Anthropogenesis is intimately related to philosophy and also to the archaeology of the Paleolithic period, the geology of the Pleistocene epoch, the physiology of the higher nervous activity of humans and primates, psychology and animal psychology, and so forth.