Testamentary literature is well attested among the new materials from the Scrolls.Testaments attached to Levi, Naphtali, Kohath and Amram have emerged.The essence] of each of your works (6) [must be Truth. These are th[eir] na[mes:] ce[dar, juniper, almond, (5) [fir, pine, ash, cypress, fig, oleaster, laurel, myrtle and (6) as[ph]althos. The line can be seen as starting with Noah and Enoch, descending through Abraham to Levi, and from him on down through his son Kohath and his grandson Amram, to Moses and Aaron.May Righteousness always] re[main] with you, and Truth. These are th[ose he said] are fitt[ing to offer up] under the burnt offering (7) on the altar. From there it moves, presumably through Eleazar and Phineas, to the entire priestly establishment taking their legitimacy in some manner from either their descent or their relationship to these early forebears.In addition, other forms of Wisdom literature are ubiquitious in the Scrolls; this Chapter presents several examples.When reading the Qumran testaments, the reader may want to bear the following genealogical relationships in mind: Even though it is possible to harbour reservations about whether all this material of varying emphases can, in fact, ever be made to correspond to a single whole, it is important to note themes and imagery even in well-known texts such as this one, which at once move across the entire spectrum of Qumran literature and are completely harmonious with the Qumran perspective.
The Righteousness and fornication themes at Qumran are, as we have seen, particularly strong.From Line 16 Column 2, the fragment shifts emphasis to Messianic-style visions of the Kingdom reminiscent both of Dan. Fragment 5 is, of course, a typically Righteousness-oriented apocalypse using the by now well-known Qumran nomenclature of walking (either in Light or Darkness) and Ways. I [washed myself] and all (11) [...then] I raised [my eyes and my countenance] to Heaven (12)... Then (17) I lay down and I remained a[t Abel Mayin...] (18) Then I was shown visions...It emphasizes two previous, primordial Righteous Ones of the utmost importance to this tradition, Enoch and Noah. my toes and my fingers (13) [...1 prayed and] said, My Lord, You (14) know... (19) in the vision of visions, and I saw Hea[ven opened and I saw the mountain] (20) beneath me, as high as to reach to Heav[en, and I was on it. Then (3) [I said, This is a vision, and thus I am amazed that I should have any vision at all.] I [hid] this also in my heart; to no person did I (4) [reveal it. Then you shall raise up for your father a name of rejoicing and for all of your brothers a [firm] Foundation. You shall see and you shall rejoice in the Eternal Light and you will not be one who is hated (of God).Manuscript B Fragment 1, is a mundane, rather typical, recital of the paraphernalia of Temple sacrifice. Then were opened] (21) to me the gates of Heaven, and an Angel [spoke to me, Levi, enter...] (1)... And we went to my (grand)father Isaac, and he also blessed me thus. the Ways of Righteousness you will aba[n]don, [and] all the ways (6)... Thus, you shall not destroy the weak by wasting away or by [crucif]ixion... This text belongs to the genre of pseudepigrapha like the Testament of Levi and A Firm Foundation (Aaron A) above.Then, wh]en Jacob my father was tithing (5) [everything that he owned according to a vow made to God, for the first time I was at the head of the priest]s, and to me of (all) his sons he gave... you will renounce, and you will walk in Darkn[ess] (7)... All of these texts, including the one attributed to Amram below, are associated with one or other of the principal characters in the priestly succession; in fact, we may be witnessing a tradition here not dissimilar to that of the Rabbinical one (e.g.-19 of a ladder by which the Angels ascended to Heaven (and descended).